Translation Process

Generally, it is possible to create new translations. Here we explain what you should keep in mind.


Structure of the Translation Process


The focus of the translation process should be to establish conceptual rather than linguistic equivalence (in the sense of a word-for-word translation) between the existing and the newly translated version of the KIDSCREEN, and to maintain the meaning of the individual items and dimensions. Thus, the new language version should be unambiguous and easy for responders (children and/or parents) to understand. 


In general, the translation of KIDSCREEN questionnaires into a new language involves a forward-backward translation followed by a harmonization and validation process.



In order to better estimate the time and resources required for the translation and validation process, we have prepared a detailed translation manual (see download below). This manual is intended to ensure that the requirements set by the KIDSCREEN group for a translation are met.


The copyright of new translations remains with the KIDSCREEN group.


Official Translations


In order for a new translation to enter the ranks of official translations (and thus appear on the KIDSCEEN website), it must meet strict requirements. Detailed information on this can be found in our translation manual at the bottom of the page. People interested in translating or adapting the KIDSCREEN questionnaires should therefore contact the KIDSCREEN group directly using the following contact information (see Contact).


Unofficial Translations


Alternatively, it is possible to create an unofficial translation. In this case, the two coordination steps (5) and (7) with the international KIDSCREEN group are omitted and it is therefore less time-consuming. However, since it does not meet the requirements of the KIDSCREEN group, this translation cannot be included in the series of official translations on the KIDSCREEN website and, like the study results, may not be marked as such. Nevertheless, we recommend that you follow the KIDSCREEN translation guidelines and other scientific recommendations on translation processes. In particular, independent translation by two translators into the target language, back-translation into English by a third translator, and comparison and revision of the versions is strongly recommended. Cognitive interviews with the target group (children/adolescents or parents/caregivers) are also recommended to ensure that the questions are well understood and correctly interpreted.

KIDSCREEN Translations Manual
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 76.0 KB

Further Publications

  • Bullinger M, Anderson R, Cella D & Aaronson N. Developing and evaluating cross-cultural instruments from minimum requirements to optimal models. In: SA Shumaker & RA Berzon, ed. The International Assessment of Health-related Quality of Life. Oxford New York: Rapid Communications, 1995: 83-91.
  • Leplège A & Verdier A. The adaptation of health status measures: methodological aspects of the translation procedure. In: SA Shumaker & RA Berzon, ed. The International Assessment of Health-related Quality of Life. Oxford New York: Rapid Communications, 1995: 93-101.
  • Herdman M, Fox-Rushby J & Badia X. “Equivalence” and the translation and adaptation of healthrelated quality of life questionnaires. Quality of Life Research ,6, 1997: 237-247.
  • Herdman M, Fox-Rushby J & Badia X. A model of equivalence in the cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments: the universalist approach. Quality of Life Research ,7, 1998: 323-335.
  • Prüfer P & Rexroth M. Zwei-Phasen-Pretesting. ZUMA-Arbeitsbericht 2000/08
  • Ravens-Sieberer, U. & Noack, E.  1996: The Translation of the English Colorectal Cancer Module into German; EORTC Study Group on Quality of Life.
  • World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎2001)‎. Common methods and instruments for health interview surveys in Europe: report of the WHO EUROHIS mid-term review, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2-4 November 2000. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.